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  • alluvial environment

    Alluvial environment is a noun as a  generalized term for a sedimentary environment where  alluvium is deposited by rivers and streams.

  • ambient temperature

    The temperature of the surrounding environment; technically, the temperature of the air surrounding a power supply or cooling medium; abbreviated ABM

  • antropy plane

    The concept of entropy developed in response to the observation that a certain amount of functional energy released from combustion reactions is always lost to dissipation or friction and is thus not transformed into useful work.

  • aquifer

    An underground bed or layer of permeable rock, sediment, or soil that yields water.

  • binary units

    A method of representing numbers in which only the digits 0 and 1 are used. Successive units are powers of 2. Also called binary system.

  • biogas

    Biogas is gas produced by decomposing organic matter (animal and vegetable waste, household waste, etc.) in the absence of oxygen. The main components of biogas are methane’s carbon dioxide. At the same time it is produced from energy crops and organic by-products such as, for example, sewage sludge or municipal green waste.

  • biomass

    Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. Biomass: “the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste” (Article 2 of Directive 2009/28/EC) where bioliquids “means liquid fuel for energy purposes other than for transport, including electricity and heating and cooling, produced from biomass” and biofuel “means liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass”. However, it can be more generally defined, in the context of bio-energy, as “any material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and transformed to fossil” (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004. “UBET Unified bioenergy terminology”. FAO Forestry Department, Wood Energy Programme).

  • Biothopica

    Biotropica is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Association for Tropical Biology & Conservation. The journal publishes articles describing original research on the ecology, conservation and management of tropical ecosystems and on the evolution, behavior, and population biology of tropical organisms.

  • borehole

    Borehole (well) is a circular mining excavation more than 5 m deep and usually between 75 and 300 mm in diameter, made by a drilling rig. Boreholes are drilled from the earth’s surface and from underground mining excavations at any angle relative to the horizon. During exploratory drilling for solid minerals, borehole diameters are usually 59 and 76 mm, whereas water, petroleum and gas wells range from 100 to 400 mm in diameter.

  • CHP systems

    A CHP system is a  heat engine (power plant) which provides all the power for an individual building; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, mechanical energy and electric power. It is a smaller-scale version of cogeneration schemes which have been used with large scale electric power plants.

  • cogeneration

    Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine[1] or power station to simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat.

  • Combined Cycle

    An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one or more gas (combustion) turbines. The exiting heat is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for utilization by a steam turbine in the production of electricity. Such designs increase the efficiency of the electric generating unit.

  • condenser

    Condenser is a device or unit used to condense vapor into liquid.

  • degradation rate

    The rate of degradation of many soluble organic compounds is limited by bioavailability when the compounds have a strong affinity for surfaces in the environment, and thus must be released to solution before organisms can degrade them.

  • Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

    A digital terrain model is a topographic model of the bare earth – terrain relief – that can be manipulated by computer programs. The data files contain the spatial elevation data of the terrain in a digital format which usually presented as a rectangular grid.

  • electrical energy generator

    An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbinesteam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.

  • electricity generation

    Electricity generation is the process of generating electrical power from other sources of primary energy. The fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered during the 1820s and early 1830s by the British scientist Michael Faraday.

  • energy efficiency

    Energy efficiency is a very broad term that refers to the many ways we can get the same benefit (light, heat, motion, etc.). Using less energy. Range covers efficient cars, energy saving light bulbs, improved industrial practices, better insulation of houses and a range of other technologies. For that saving energy means saving money, energy efficiency is very profitable.

  • Evacuated Tube Collectors (ETCs)

    Evacuated tube collectors are used to store t warm heat from the body. The heat pipe is a metal pipe of copper or other heat conducting closed at both ends, which include a phase change agent.

  • exhaust gases

    Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel fuel, fuel oil or coal. According to the type of engine, it is discharged into the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe, flue gas stack or propelling nozzle.

  • fossil fuels

    A hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel.

  • fuel cell

    A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen/air to sustain the chemical reaction, they can however produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied.

  • general thermodynamic assessment

    Thermodynamics is the study of macroscopic phenomena of any kind, in which the transfer of energy as heat and work. Evaluation is a set of operations that specifies contents and objectives to be assessed, for what purpose and in what perspective is evaluated, when evaluating (at the beginning, during, at the end of the balance) – evaluates how (with what tools, samples, etc.

  • geographical area

    An area of land that can be considered as a unit for the purposes of some geographical classification.

  • georeferentiation

    Georeferentiation can be defined as the process of assigning a geographic location (e.g. latitude and longitude) to a geographic feature on the basis of its address. Now online services are used widely to map routes and locations in business also.

  • geothermal energy

    Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth’s crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). As used at electric utilities, hot water or steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs in the Earth’s crust that is supplied to steam turbines at electric utilities that drive generators to produce electricity.

  • geothermal power plant

    A power plant in which a turbine is driven either from hot water or by natural steam that derives its energy from heat found in rocks or fluids at various depths beneath the surface of the earth. The fluids are extracted by drilling and/or pumping.

  • geothermal resources

    It is a natural source of heat, a magma chamber, porous rock underground springs that can circulate steam and water. Steam and hot water are used directly for heating. The steam is used to generate electricitate.It is clean, renewable and can be used for various purposes.

  • geothermal wells

    Geothermal wells are wells which tap into the natural geothermal energy found beneath the Earth’s crust. There are a number of different types which can be utilized in various ways, ranging from wells which connect to sources of steam which can be used to power turbines to wells utilized in geothermal heat pumps, which maintain stable indoor temperatures with the use of a recirculating water system. Most of the world’s geothermal wells are found in areas of increased geological activity.

  • GIS

    Geographic information systems (GIS) (also known as Geospatial information systems) are computer software and hardware systems that enable users to capture, store, analyse and manage spatially referenced data.[1] GISs have transformed the way spatial (geographic) data, relationships and patterns in the world are able to be interactively queried, processed, analysed, mapped, modelled, visualised, and displayed for an increasingly large range of users, for a multitude of purposes.

  • GIS system

    GIS is an acronym derived from the Geographic Information System (GIS – sometimes translated as GIS in Romanian). This system is used to create, store, analyze and process information distributed through a computerized process space. GIS technology can be used in various scientific fields such as resource management, environmental impact studies, mapping, route planning.

  • Google Maps

    Google Maps is a web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, that powers many map-based services, including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder, Google Transit,and maps embedded on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps, a route planner for traveling by foot, car, bike (beta), or with public transportation and a locator for urban businesses in numerous countries around the world. Google Maps satellite images are not updated in real time, but rather they are several months or years old.

  • groundwater

    Groundwater is water located beneath the earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, also called groundwater hydrology.

  • heat capacity/ thermal capacity

    Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, is the measurable physical quantity that specifies the amount of heat required to change the temperature of an object or body by a given amount. The SI unit of heat capacity is joule per kelvin, J/K.

  • heat exchanger

    A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air.

  • heat flow

    Heat flowis the amount of heat transferred across an isothermal surface in a unit time. Heat flow has the same dimensions as power and is measured in watts (W) or kilocalories per hour (kcal/hr); 1 W = 0.86 kcal/hr.

  • heat recovery

    System using equipment known as a heat recovery ventilator, heat exchanger, air exchanger, or air-to-air heat exchanger which employs a counter-flowheat exchanger (countercurrent heat exchange) between the inbound and outbound air flow.

  • heat transfer fluid

    Air or fluid directed to a device for neutralizing the effect of heating the rotary tool.

  • hybrid energy

    Hybrid energy is the combined use of two or more forms of energy resulting in a more efficient system overall. Hybrid systems can significantly reduce overall energy use and environmental impacts, increase the efficiency and reliability of energy production and reduce the cost of providing for the end uses. Hybrid systems can create markets for renewable energy sources that might not otherwise exist. The limitations of renewable sources are reduced with back-up sources and energy storage provided in a hybrid system.

  • isobutene heating

    Heating isobutylene is warming on a significant hydrocarbon industries. Isobutene is one of the four isomers of butenes. At standard temperature and pressure is a colorless flammable gas.

  • landfill gas

    Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.

  • lorenz cycle

    In the Lorentz cycle the source and sink temperatures are not constant.

  • methodology

    Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study, or the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. It, typically, encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.

  • micro CHP systems

    A micro-CHP system is a small heat engine that provides all power for an individual building, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, mechanical energy and electricity. This is a smaller scale version of sistememului cogeneration is used by large power plants. The aim is to use as much energy from the fuel. The reason for using such systems is that steam power plants that generate electricity for modern life by burning fuel, are not very effective.

  • organic fluid

    An organic fluid is, by definition, a substance that can flow and that the shape of the vessel that contains it and that has not been genetically modified and which not added other chemicals.

  • Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)

    The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is named for its use of an organic, high molecular mass fluid with a liquid-vapor phase change, or boiling point, occurring at a lower temperature than the water-steam phase change. The fluid allows Rankine cycle heat recovery from lower temperature sources such as biomass combustion, industrial waste heat, geothermal heat, solar ponds, etc.

  • Pannonian Basin

    The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in East-Central Europe. The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense – meaning only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried out.

  • photovoltaic cell

    An electronic device consisting of layers of semiconductor materials fabricated to form a junction (adjacent layers of materials with different electronic characteristics) and electrical contacts and being capable of converting incident light directly into electricity (direct current).

  • photovoltaic module

    An integrated assembly of interconnected photovoltaic cells designed to deliver a selected level of working voltage and current at its output terminals, packaged for protection against environment degradation, and suited for incorporation in photovoltaic power systems.

  • photovoltaics

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide.

  • pre-insulated pipes

    Pre-insulated pipes are used to build networks for air cold water, hot water, heat and other types of agents.

  • renewable energy

    Renewable energy is energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.

  • saturated vapour

    Saturated vapor density are those with the maximum vapor pressure and temperature at which it is.

  • solar collectors

    A  solar collector is a device for converting the energy in sunlight, or solar radiation, into a more usable or storable form. This energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared (long) to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. The quantity of solar energy striking the Earth’s surface averages about 1,000 watts per square meter under clear skies, depending upon weather conditions, location, and orientation of the surface.

  • solar energy

    Solar energy is energy from the sun, as a renewable energy source. Solar energy can be used to:generate electricity through solar cells (photovoltaic), generate electricity through solar thermal (heliocentric), heat buildings directly,building heat through the heat pump, heat buildings and produce hot water by solar thermal.

  • solar power systems

    Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect.

  • solar radiation

    Solar radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun in the wavelength range of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves.

  • solar spectrum

    The solar spectrum is a spectrum of different types of visible and invisible radiation with a wavelength ranging from 280nm to 3000nm. The radiation emitted by the sun are partially absorbed by the ozone layer of clouds and atmospheric pollutants.

  • steam turbine

    Steam turbine is a rotary engine heat machine that converts mechanical energy available in the steam enthalpy at turbine coupling. The transformation is performed by means of blades mounted on a rotor which rotates jointly.

  • stratigraphy

    Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks. Stratigraphy includes two related subfields: lithologic stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy.

  • thermodynamic

    Thermodynamics is a branch of natural science concerned with heat and its relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables (such as temperature, internal energy, entropy, and pressure) that characterize materials and radiation, and explains how they are related and by what laws they change with time. Thermodynamics describes the average behavior of very large numbers of microscopic constituents, and its laws can be derived from statistical mechanics.

  • waste heat

    Waste heat is by necessity produced both by machines that do work and in other processes that use energy, for example in maintaining the heat of a room. The need for functioning systems to reject heat is fundamental to the laws of thermodynamics. Waste heat has lower utility (or in thermodynamics lexicon a lower exergy or higher entropy) than the original energy source. Sources of waste heat include all manner of human activities, natural systems, and all organisms. Rejection of unneeded cold (as from a heat pump) is also a form of waste heat (i.e. the medium has heat, but at a lower temperature than is considered warm).

  • water-supply

    Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered separately.

  • WGS84 reference system

    The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation. It comprises a standard coordinate frame for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface (the datum or reference ellipsoid) for raw altitude data, and a gravitational equipotential surface (the geoid) that defines the nominal sea level.The latest revision is WGS 84 (dating from 1984 and last revised in 2004). Earlier schemes included WGS 72, WGS 66, and WGS 60. WGS 84 is the reference coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System.

  • wind roses

    A wind rose is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Historically, wind roses were predecessors of the compass rose (found on maps), as there was no differentiation between a cardinal direction and the wind which blew from such a direction. Using a polar coordinate system of gridding, the frequency of winds over a long time period are plotted by wind direction, with color bands showing wind ranges. The directions of the rose with the longest spoke show the wind direction with the greatest frequency.